The study area of Oinofyta is located in the eastern part of Assopos river basin.  The average annual rainfall ranges from 400 mm in Oropos region to more than 1000 mm at Parnis’s peaks, which is also the natural southern boundary of the basin. Assopos river has a total length of 57 km and flows through Assopia, the plain of Thiva, Oinofyta, Schimatari, Sikamino and Oropos where it finally discharges into North Evoikos Gulf.

Oinofyta study area and sampling site in red oval.

Assopos basin is mainly covered by clastic Neogene and Quaternary deposits while the geological background consists mainly of Triassic-Jurassic limestone. The main aquifer develops in gravel and sand Neogene formations and the water level elevation ranges from 80 m to 95 m while the aquifer has hydraulic connection with Assopos river. In greater depths, a karstic aquifer occurs. The municipality of Oinofyta has a permanent population of 6,563 residents while Oinofyta town has a permanent population of 2,927 residents. Ιn the wider area of Assopos river basin, the main land uses are for industrial and agricultural activities.

Groundwater sampling in Assopos area by Intergeo S.A.

Industrialization in Assopos region started in the 1960s and currently more than 400 industrial units are operating in the area. The main flow of the produced industrial waste water is coming primarily from the sectors of “Textile and leather industries”, “Metallurgy related industries” and “Industries of Foods and Drinks”. For at least three decades industrial effluents polluted the river, the aquifers and the soils of the area. Since 2008, due to concerns about the quality of groundwater in Assopos area, the underground disposal of processed industrial wastewater was banned by law.

Even-though the industrial activity in the area is intense, no data were found on the estimated groundwater abstractions by each industrial unit. However, the total water consumption for industrial purposes is estimated to be 3,235,739 cubic m. According to data from the National Water Management Plans (NWMP) the main uses of groundwater are for irrigation and secondary for livestock and domestic purposes.