Oman is the arid end-member of CrITERIA case study areas.
Rainfall provides 15,841 MCM/yr to Oman, with 12,553 MCM/yr lost due to evaporation and initial absorption. Direct recharge from rainfall (2,397 MCM/yr) provides 88% of the inflow, with contributions from wadi recharge (240 MCM/yr), urban recharge (77 MCM/yr) and reservoir recharge (10 MCM/yr). The total amount of direct recharge to Oman is calculated as being 15.1% of rainfall on average; the remainder is lost to evaporation, initial absorption and runoff. According to FAO, the total internal renewable water resources are estimated at 1,400 MCM/yr, and actual renewable water resources per inhabitant based on the 2005 population is 545 m3/yr.
Groundwater occurrence in Oman is largely controlled by the geology and stratigraphy. Groundwater is the main water resource used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. Wells and well fields contribute around 20% of the supplies for these uses and are managed by the Public Authority for Electricity and Water (PAEW). Groundwater is encountered in most areas of the country, with variable storage and quality depending on the geology.
During the Cretaceus Period Oman was located adjacent to asubduction zone and a portion of the upper mantle along with overlying seafloor volcanic rocks were thrust over the continental crust. This obducted sequence of ultramafic to mafic rocks is the Semail Ophiolite complex. The ophiolite is locally rich in sulfide copper and chromite orebodies. Samples were collected from the lowland area of Barka and the mountainous area of Nakhl.
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